Glossary, Shortened forms, References and Acknowledgements


Term Definition
Aboriginal Australians People of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent who identify as such, and are accepted as such by the community in which they live.
Act A law made by Parliament, and known as an Act of Parliament.
Allegation A claim that an individual has engaged in a specific instance of conduct which is suspected to amount to minor misconduct. A matter may contain more than one allegation. Where the term allegation is used outside its minor misconduct definition, it takes the meaning, a claim, or assertion that someone has done something illegal or wrong.
Authority See public authorities.
Breach of standard A determination by the Commissioner that one or more of the requirements of a public sector standard have, or have not been, complied with.
Code of Conduct
A formal written policy documenting the behaviour expected of all employees of a public authority. Under the PSM Act each public sector body is expected to develop a Code of Conduct consistent with the Western Australian Public Sector Code of Ethics.
Code of Ethics The Western Australian Public Sector Code of Ethics outlines the minimum standards of conduct and integrity for public sector bodies and employees outlined in the PSM Act.
Department An organisation established under Section 35 of the PSM Act.
Director of Equal Opportunity in Public Employment
A statutory role pursuant to Part IX of the EO Act.The DEOPE currently resides within the Public Sector Commission and currently holds an Executive Director position.
Ethical codes Ethical codes are made up of the Code of Ethics together with authority-specific codes of conduct.
Full-time equivalent (FTE)
One FTE is one person paid for a full-time position. FTE totals include all current employees except board members (unless they are on a public sector authority payroll), trainees engaged through any traineeship program, award or agreement, and casuals who were not paid in the final pay period for the financial year. FTE calculations do not include any time that is not ordinary time paid, such as overtime and flex-time.
Headcount Number of employees directly employed by a public sector agency at a point in time, regardless of employment type.
Improvement action Any action taken to improve an employee’s conduct (e.g. warning, training, counselling) other than a formal sanction (e.g. demotion, fine).
Leaders A term used to refer to leadership roles in general and not only limited to management Tiers 1, 2 and 3.
Machinery of Government A term broadly used to refer to the structure of government agencies and the configuration of the public sector.
Managers or middle managers A general term used to refer to mid-level supervisors.
An issue being dealt with by the Commission (created by a report or notification) which relates to, or is suspected to relate to minor misconduct. This includes matters which may have been referred from the CCC. A matter may contain more than one allegation.
Non-SES organisation A term defined by Section 3 of the PSM Act.
Other authorities
For the purposes of this report, the term refers to those organisations and bodies that responded to the Integrity and conduct survey, excluding public sector agencies.
People 24 and under A term applied to the diversity group commonly referred to as ‘youth’.
People 45 and over A term applied to the diversity group commonly referred to as ‘mature-aged’.
People from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds
A term applied to people born in countries other than those below, which have been categorised by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) as mainly English speaking countries as follows: Australia, Canada, England, Ireland, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Scotland, South Africa, United States of America, Wales.
People with disability
A term applied to people with ongoing disability who have an employment restriction that requires any of the following: modified hours of work or time schedules; adaptions to the workplace or work area; specialised equipment; extra time for mobility or for some tasks; ongoing assistance or supervision to carry out their duties.
Public authorities
For the purposes of this report, the term refers to those organisations and bodies that provided responses to the Public sector entity survey and the Integrity and conduct survey. That generally includes all State Government agencies, local governments, public universities, GTEs and many government boards and committees.
The term public authority has specific legislative meaning in the PID Act, CCM Act and EEO Act.
Public interest disclosure A disclosure made by any person on a matter of public interest and as characterised under the PID Act.
Public officer For the purposes of this report, the term refers to all people in public employment.
Public sector
Refers collectively to departments, SES organisations, non-SES organisations and ministerial officers and is defined by Section 3 of the PSM Act.
Public sector agencies
For the purposes of this report, the term refers to those organisations and bodies that provided responses to the Public sector entity survey.
Public sector employees
For the purposes of this report, the term refers to those employees that provided responses to the Employee perception survey.
Public sector workforce
The collective term used when describing characteristics of employees working in the public sector. Data on the public sector workforce is collected through HRMOIR.
Public service
For the purposes of this report, the term does not take a legislative meaning, rather refers to the principles of working in the public interest, while undertaking a public function.
Schedule 1 entity
Entities which are not organisations under the PSM Act, including local governments, public universities and GTEs.
Senior executives, SES
Generally comprises positions classified at Public Service and Government Officers General Agreement 2014 equivalent salary bands 9 and above, with specific management or policy responsibilities.
Senior leaders
A term used to refer to leadership roles generally in management Tiers 1, 2 and 3.
Service Priority Review
Refers to the State Government initiative announced on 4 May 2017, to conduct an independent review to effect sustainable and effective reform. The panel members are Mr Iain Rennie CNZM, Mr Michael Dillon and Ms Margaret Seares AO.
SES organisation
An organisation listed in Schedule 2 of the PSM Act.
Tier 1
Directs and is responsible for the public authority, as well as its overall development. Typical titles include Director General, Chief Executive Officer, General Manager, Executive Director and Commissioner.
Tier 2
Tier 2 reports to Tier 1 and assists Tier 1 by implementing organisational plans. Is directly responsible for leading and directing the work of other managers of functional departments. May be responsible for managing professional and specialist employees

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Shortened forms

Term Definition
AIM Australian Institute of Management
ANZSOG Australian and New Zealand School of Government
Accountable and ethical decision making
BETA Behavioural Economics Team of the Australian Government
CCC Corruption and Crime Commission
CCM Act Corruption, Crime and Misconduct Act 2003
CEO Chief Executive Officer
CFO Chief Finance Officer
CHRO Chief Human Resource Officer
Commission Public Sector Commission
Commissioner Public Sector Commissioner
CUA Common use agreement
DEOPE Director of Equal Opportunity in Public Employment
EO Act Equal Opportunity Act 1984
EEO Equal employment opportunity
EPS Employee perception survey
FTE Full-time equivalent
GTEs Government trading enterprises
HRMOIR Human resource minimum obligatory information requirement
IBAC Independent Broad-based Anti-corruption Commission
ICS Integrity and conduct survey
ICG Integrity Coordinating Group
ICT Information and communications technology
MOG Machinery of Government
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
PID Act Public Interest Disclosure Act 2003
PSES Public sector entity survey
PSM Act Public Sector Management Act 1994
SES Senior Executive Service
VLGA Victorian Local Governance Association
VPSC Victorian Public Sector Commission
WA Western Australia or Western Australian

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For all Public Sector Commission publications, please refer to the Commission’s website.

Aon Hewitt, 2013, Managing Engagement During Times of Change, viewed 9 August 2017. 

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017, Australian Demographic Statistics (catalogue no. 3101.0), March 2017, TABLE 4. Estimated Resident Population, States and Territories (Number), viewed 28 September 2017.

Australian and New Zealand School of Government (ANZSOG), 2016, Strategic Responses to Corruption, viewed 4 September.

Australian Institute of Management (AIM), 2012, AIM Insights: Gender Diversity in Management Targeting Untapped Talent First Steps, viewed 28 September 2017.

Baker, D., 2007, Strategic change management in public sector organisations, viewed 14 August 2017

Beck, R. and Harter, J., 2015, Gallup Business Journal: Managers Account for 70% of Variance in Employee Engagement, viewed 8 September 2017.

Behavioural Economics Team of the Australian Government (BETA), 2017, Going blind to see more clearly: unconscious bias in Australian Public Services shortlisting processes, viewed 14 August 2017.

Brown, A. J. and Lawrence, S. A., 2017, Griffith University, Strength of Organisational Whistleblowing Processes : Analysis from Australia & New Zealand, Further results of the Whistling While They Work 2 Project, viewed on 22 August 2017.

Bryans, P. and Stutt, T., 2011, Keeping Good Companies: Reducing leaks in your talent pipeline through diversity, Corporate Law 2011;63(1):30, viewed 17 August 2017.

Department of Health, 2016, Changes to the governance of WA Health – Overview, viewed 4 September.

Dionisio, J.M., 2013, The Ethisphere Institute, Ethics and Compliance Programs: The Centerpiece of Trust: Treating Ethics as a Holistic Value to the Organization, viewed 19 July 2017.

Easton, S., 2017, Which governments are most welcome to whistleblowing. New ranking released, viewed 23 August 2017.

Efrat, Z., 2015, A keen eye on good public sector governance and performance, Governance Directions, 2015;67:645, viewed 23 August 2017.

Elias, L., 2016, Using capability frameworks for career development, viewed 21 August 2017

Government of Western Australia, 2017, Major changes introduced to create a more efficient public sector, viewed 7 August 2017

Hout, T. and Carter, J.C, 1995, Harvard Business Review (HBR), Getting it done: New roles for senior executives, viewed 23 August 2017.

Herb, E., Leslie, K. and Price, C., 2001, McKinsey Quarterly: Teamwork at the top, viewed 23 August 2017.

Independent Broad-based Anti-corruption Commission (IBAC), 2016, Podcast seven: Ethical leadership with Dr Michael Macaulay, transcript viewed 28 September 2017.

Independent Broad-based Anti-corruption Commission (IBAC), 2017, Podcast ten: Practical perspectives on building corruption resilient culture with Fran Thorn, transcript viewed 28 September 2017.

Kavanagh, S. C. and Levenson, N., 2016, Running Government like a business scientist: The Rise of Evidence-based Decision Making, Government Finance Review (Chicago), 2016; 32(4):16, viewed at 25 August 2017.

Managing Values Pty Ltd, 2017, Whistleblowing – too little too late?, viewed 21 August 2017. 

Mitchell, A., 2017, Australian Financial Review: Great leadership skills are not as innate as previously thought, viewed 20 August 2017.

Moon, D. and Adams, C., 2015, Too much of a good thing: balancing transparency and government effectiveness in FOI public interest in decision making, AIAL Administrative Law Forum 23 2015;82:28, viewed 21 August 2017.

Mutula, S. and Wamukoya, J.M., 2000, Public sector information management in east and southern Africa: implications for FOI, democracy and integrity in government, viewed 23 August 2017.

Nolan-Flecha, N., 2017, OECD Trust and Public Policy: How Better Governance Can Help Rebuild Public Trust, Chapter 2 The influence of integrity on public trust, viewed 17 July 2017.

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), 2010, Towards recovery and partnerships with citizens: The call for innovative and open government. Conclusions from Ministerial meeting of the OECD Public Governance Committee, 15 November 2010, viewed 7 August 2017.

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), 2016, Engaging Public Employees for a High-Performing Civil Service, Chapter 3: An engaged civil service for innovation, productivity and sustainable reform, viewed 17 July 2017.

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), 2016, Engaging Public Employees for a High-Performing Civil Service, Chapter 1: From crisis to performance: current trends and challenges in public employment, viewed 17 July 2017.

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), 2017, Public Governance Reviews: Preventing Policy Capture: Integrity in Public Decision Making, viewed at 23 August 2017.

Smith, M., 2012, The Guardian: How the cuts are affecting training, viewed 22 August 2017.

Speiglman, P., 2017, Deliver values to employees your most important stakeholders, viewed 23 August 2017.

Stazyki, E. and Davis, R., Taking the ‘high road’: does public service motivation alter ethical decision making processes? Public Administration, 2015; 93:159, viewed 21 August 2017.

Tauman, M. H., 1983, Australian Dictionary of Biography, viewed 30 August 2017.

Victorian Local Governance Association, Municipal Association of Victoria, Local Government Victoria and Local Government Professionals, 2016, Good governance guide, viewed 22 August 2017.

Victorian Public Service Commission (VPSC), 2013, Organisational change: an ideas sourcebook for the Victorian public sector, viewed 18 August 2017.

Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA), 2017, What is the gender pay gap?, viewed 1 August 2017.

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The Public Sector Commission acknowledges the following public authorities and individuals for contributing case studies and stories to this year’s State of the sectors report:

  • Ms Crystal Fripp, Human Resources Officer,

    Shire of Esperance
  • Mr Lindon McKenna, Principal Project Officer,

    Office of the Ombudsman WA
  • Mr Tony Hassall, Acting Corrective Services Commissioner,

    Department of Justice
  • Ms Lee Gyomorei, Supervisor Governance and Compliance,

    City of Canning

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Page last updated 19 October 2017